This path-breaking book strips this ancient science of its mystique and metaphysical pretentions and interprets it to strike common ground with biomedical science. Concepts like qi and meridians are interpreted not as physical entities, but as constructs to facilitate diagnosis and therapy using heuristic models. Written for medical professionals, philosophers of medicine and discerning readers interested in holistic therapies, the book offers a unique perspective of Chinese medicine in an advanced biomedical world. It has practical chapters on cardiovascular disease, irritable bowel syndrome and cancer, and a compilation of Chinese herbs.
This second edition of the acclaimed Theory of Chinese Medicine has new material on chronic diseases and the intriguing possible convergence of biomedicine and TCM.
Readership: Medical professionals, both Western medical doctors and TCM practitioners; librarians of TCM professional associations and teaching institutes; scholars interested in the theoretical basis for Chinese medicine, and the informed general reader seeking to understand the rationale and applicability of Chinese medical therapies to enhance their health.
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Integrating East Asian Medicine into Contemporary Healthcare E-Book
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- Anti-Malaria Campaigns and the Socialist Reconstruction of China, 1950–80.
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Malaria is a parasitic disease transmitted by mosquitoes. The desire of the global community to eradicate it has been demonstrated by many national and international projects. The World Health Organization WHO launched an ambitious program in to eradicate malaria worldwide with methods including DDT residual spraying, drug treatment and surveillance, based on the four-step progression of preparation, attack, consolidation, and maintenance.
In rural China, health campaigns were combined with land reclamation, irrigation, and the improvement of sanitary conditions for both humans and livestock. Malaria was historically a major epidemic disease in China. Modern efforts to tackle the disease began in the s, when medical scientists started investigating the malaria situation in heavily infected south and central China.
With limited resources, the medical scientists conducted field surveys and compiled data from the few anti-malaria stations set up by the Nationalist government. They used Paris Green the highly toxic copper II acetate triarsenite and bred larvae-eating fish as control measures, and sometimes administered quinine to patients to study its effectiveness.
Efforts to investigate and treat malaria at a few local health centres resumed in the s, but the disease remained a major health challenge for the country. More than 30 million Chinese people were reported suffering from malaria and one per cent of them died in The government of the PRC launched nationwide health campaigns in the early s with co-ordinated efforts among different regions, simultaneously targetting major infectious diseases such as typhus, typhoid fever, cholera, smallpox, tuberculosis, schistosomiasis, hookworm, black fever, meningitis, and malaria.
In , the government mobilised the whole nation with a patriotic call to clean up communities and homes and to eliminate flies and mosquitoes in a mass movement of public health against American germ warfare. The Great Patriotic Health Movement was born, and in the following decades, the Chinese people mobilised to fight endemic and epidemic diseases to fulfill their duty as citizens. In the early s, the country was destitute after decades of war and it lacked the technical and material recourses for health care. The government faced many challenges on domestic and international fronts, including the need to rebuild a collapsed economic and financial system, to reduce general poverty and disease, and to clean up widespread opium addiction and prostitution.
Severe shortages of medicines and health professionals affected the common people most. It was not uncommon that only one doctor was available for several adjacent villages. When the Patriotic Health Movement began, it largely relied on local support to combat endemics and epidemics professionally and financially. The six staff members were divided into medical teams to go to villages to give vaccinations and conduct investigations of schistosomiasis, filariasis and malaria — diseases for which no vaccines were available at the time.
But they were gung-ho about their work and fearless of hardship, walking tens of miles to villages with their bedding on their back. They stayed with peasants for days for the equivalent of 30 fen per day, and captured mosquitoes under the beds of the villagers at night for medical research.
After analysing the different types of mosquitoes, they would select the right insecticide to spray to achieve the best effect. In , they were excited to obtain a bicycle made in Hungary but it was reserved for a senior colleague and for carrying the microscope. The situation improved over the next decade, when the economy grew and the number of health professionals increased. The station had more staff as the country trained more health workers, and new drugs became available through development and production.
More importantly, a co-operative health care system was established in rural areas to provide services. Good health was promoted as a significant part of the socialist transformation of the old China. Government mobilised the people to participate in the health movement and encouraged them to become masters of change, reconstructing society and changing their traditional values to socialist beliefs. When the Ministry of Health called for a national anti-malaria campaign in to reduce the cases of malaria and the death rate, other government ministries, such as education, culture, propaganda, labour, and agriculture, helped to co-ordinate the campaign at every level of the administrative system.
Professional and social organisations such as the Red Cross, the National Federation of Women, and the Labor Union also participated in the campaign. The campaign attempted to turn the masses from passive recipients of medicine and health care into active fighters against diseases and masters of their own health. Were the people ready and equipped to do the job? If they were to fight diseases effectively, they had to first understand the diseases, preventive methods, and thecurative medicines.
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The reality was that China had a population of million in and the illiteracy rate was over 80 per cent. The overwhelming majority of the population about 88 per cent lived in rural villages, where the illiteracy rate was even higher and traditional views of life and illnesses stronger.
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The anti-disease campaigners were intent on disseminating scientific knowledge among the masses to change their health behaviour and worldview, which was considered crucial to accepting new ideas and ways of doing things in the general reconstruction of a socialist China. How did Chinese public health workers, local officials, and campaign activists manage to teach a largely illiterate population about the modern science of epidemic and endemic diseases and methods of prevention? Moreover, mass meetings were regularly held for political struggles as well as for reading newspapers and learning about agriculture and industrial production.
Above all, these study meetings aimed to encourage people to rid themselves of old ideas and values, and selfishness and individualism and to learn about socialist values and the goal of the collective good. The illiteracy elimination movement continued from the s to the s, increasing the literacy of hundreds of millions, despite setbacks during those decades.
The illiteracy elimination classes taught people not merely reading, writing and arithmetic, but more importantly for the government and Communist Party, raised their political consciousness with socialist propaganda and education.
Integrating East Asian Medicine into Contemporary Healthcare E-Book
A woman, learning to read and write herself, would not be interested a man of lesser learning. Certain brands of pen became popular, and the industry manufacturing them flourished as a result. As stated above, the health campaigns emphasised the dissemination of scientific knowledge of diseases in an effort to change people from holding traditional values to respecting modern science. In fact, this derived from a long process of modernisation in twentieth-century China that emphasised science as the driving force for progress and modernity. The first significant initiative was the overhaul of the Chinese education system from the old examination system based on the classics to a school curriculum that included modern scientific subjects.
Science became the symbol of progress — antagonistic to tradition, which was considered an obstacle to the advancement of a society. Competing social and political theories from the West — social Darwinism, republicanism, nationalism, capitalism, socialism, communism and Marxism — have all influenced the direction of Chinese modernisation. It had such a pervasive influence on Chinese intellectual culture that some scholars have argued that scientism characterised modern Chinese thought.
Germ theory was introduced to Chinese urban residents in the s through public health campaigns and school hygiene education, with the aid of visual materials such as posters, charts, and pictures. The cultural adaptation of ideas from one country to another always encounters the issue of making alien concepts easy for locals to comprehend. Along with the arrival of scientific medical concepts came biomedical drugs, which were marketed to Chinese consumers in large cities such as Shanghai and Tianjin.
The spirin advertisement shown in Figure 4 represented a flourishing commercial market for biomedicine in China in the s. Perhaps with positive response to the therapies the demand for training will increase in the coming decade. There was brief mention of acupuncture from time to time after that, but then a number of articles and books appeared in the 19 th century, outlined in the table below adapted from Understanding Acupuncture by Birch and Felt, Churchill-Livingstone.
Peter Eckman, in his book In the Footsteps of the Yellow Emperor , presents the results of his intensive research into the development of acupuncture therapy in Europe. The main purpose of his effort was to discover the influences on J. Worsley, who became a significant figure in the development of acupuncture in England and America, two countries where Eckman has lived and worked.
Prior to that date, there had been scattered accounts and even some books about acupuncture in Western languages, but no attempt to formulate a systematic understanding of acupuncture based on points, meridians, the circulation of qi and its management and reflection in pulse diagnosis.